Kirat Yakthung Chumlung (UK)

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Limbu History

History of Limbuwan ( Nepali: लिम्बुवानको ईतिहास) is characterised by its close interaction with its neighbours; independent and semi independent rule characterized by autonomy for most of its part. From the time of King Sirijunga Hang to King Mahendra of Nepal, Limbuwan enjoyed Kipat System of Land and Semi or full Autonomy over the period of its existence. Limbuwan is also similar to the rest of Nepal during the medieval ages due to the presence of 10 independent or semi Independent Limbu Kingdoms with strong knitted alliance. Yakthung Pan or Limbu language with four major dialects has always been a major language in Limbuwan. Kirant Mundhum religion as major indigenous religion, with Tibetan Buddhism and Nepali Hinduism gaining significant ground in various parts of Limbuwan history.

The present day Limbuwan comprises land south of the Himalaya Mountains, east of Arun and Kosi rivers and west of Sewalungma mountain range ( Kanchenjunga and Singalila Mountain ranges ) and Mechi River.Limbuwan territory is also called Pallo Kirant by People living in the west of Arun River, Kathmandu valley and other Nepalese people.

Limbuwan and her history have never been covered much by the government of Nepal in its academic text books while majority of focus was lighted upon the history of Kathmandu valley only (also called Nepal valley or simply Nepal), although Limbuwan is a part of Nepal now; it was once ruled independently up to 1774 AD, Limbuwan or her history remains unknown even too many people of Limbuwan. People of Limbuwan and Nepalese citizens in the present context of federalism and autonomy in Nepal don’t understand that out of all the territories annexed by the Kings of Gorkha, Limbuwan was the only territory that was actually incorporated to the Kingdom of Nepal by the means of collective Gorkha-Limbuwan Treaty with the Kings of ten Kingdoms of Limbuwan and their ministers. Under the terms of treaty, Limbuwan and her kings would accept King of Nepal as their overlord and stay under the same Nepalese flag but Limbuwan and her people were supposed to be completely autonomous with non interference from the Kingdom of Nepal. However, over the period of Shah dynasty, Limbuwan was gradually stripped of its original treaty rights. Therefore, people of Limbuwan today are the most vocal, proponent and supportive of federalism with autonomy in Nepal.

Pre-History
Anthropologists and Historians claim with fossil records that people lived in Nepal around 30-40 thousand years ago. First people of Limbuwan and Eastern Nepal could have been that batch of people too. First people to live permanently and calling Limbuwan home was the Kirant people. These Mongoloid people are believed to have moved into Nepal from the east from Assam valley and beyond around 6-8 thousand years ago. They practised shifting cultivation and moved with their domesticated pigs and other animals along the lower warmer hills. The same people moved on to western Nepal and eventually conquered Kathmandu valley to establish the first Kirant civilization of Nepalese history. They spoke language of Tibeto-Burman Ancestry and practised animistic religion.

Bhauiputahang Dynasty
King Bhauiputahang of Limbuwan (First Independent King of Limbuwan (circa 580 BC)
King Jitedasti became the seventh Kiranti King in central Nepal around 580 BC. Kirant Chiefs under King Jitedasti in present day Limbuwan area revolted against him and ceased to see him as their overlord. During that period all the Kirant chiefs used to pay monetary tribute and rendered military service to the Kirant kings of Kathmandu valley. The system was much similar to feudal system in medieval Europe. After the revolts, Kirant chiefs of eastern Nepal elected Bhauiputahang as their new king. King Bhauiputahang built his capital in Phedap and ruled eastern Nepal comprising of present day Limbuwan. While central Nepal was ruled by Kings of Kirant Dynasty, Limbuwan in east Nepal was also ruled by kings of Kirant dynasty, (the ancestors of Present Kirant Limbu people). King Bhauiputahang was a renowned in the Limbuwan and eastern Nepal, while King Jitedasti sat on the throne in Kathmandu valley.

King Parbatak of Limbuwan / Eastern Nepal (Circa 317 BC)
A descendent of King Bhauiputahang, King Parbatak was a son of King Jeitehang and ruled Limbuwan around 317 BC. During that period, King Parbatak was the most powerful kings of the Himalayan region and present day Nepal. King Parbatak was allied with Chandra Gupta Maurya of Magadha, and also assisted him in his military campaigns in Nanda kingdom. During his father King Jiete’s rule, Alexander the great had invaded India and established his Satraps in Punjab and Sindh. King Parbatak assisted King Chandra Gupta Maurya in driving the Greek Satraps Seleucus (Military governor) away from Punjab and Sindh. For King Parbatak’s assistance to Chandra Gupta, he gave lands of northern Bihar to King Parbatak and many Kiranti people migrated to northern Bihar during that period. They became known as Madhesia Kirant People, or Limbus of Kashi Gotra. King Parbatak Hang is also mentioned by Magadha Historians as ally of Maurya Emperor.

King Samyuk of Limbuwan / Eastern Nepal (Circa 125 BC)
After seven generations of King Parbatak, King Samyuk sat on the throne of Limbuwan / Eastern Nepal. He was unpopular among the descendants of Madhesia Kirant people (Descendents of those who lived in Bihar since King Parbatak’s time). Under the leadership of Bazdeohang, people revolted against King Samyuk and overthrew him. The Kirant Chiefs elected Bazdeo as the new King of Limbuwan / Eastern Nepal.

Bazdeo Dynasty
King Bazdeohang of Limbuwan (circa 125 BC on)
After the revolution of Kirant people of Limbuwan area, the Kirant chiefs of the region elected the rebel leader Bazdeohang as their King. He made his capital at Libang and started his own dynasty. He was followed by twelve kings of his dynasty.

King Sangkhadeo I
King Sangkhadeo II
King Dewapour
King Bhichuuk
King Ghangtuk
King Sotumhang
King Limdung
King Lijehang
King Mapunhang
King Dendehang
King Kundungjapa
King Kundungjapa of Limbuwan

The last king of Bazdeo dynasty had four sons, Mundhungge, Sandhungge, Kane Hang, and Kochu Hang. It is said that Kochu hang migrated to North Bengal and established his own Kingdom Kochpiguru from where the term Koch is derived. After the death of King Kundungjapa, Limbuwan fell into chaos and anarchy, each chief ruling their areas independently.

The Era of Eight Kings
From the time of the last king of Bazdeo’s dynasty, Limbuwan was ruled by eight chiefs and their descendents, none of them rose to become powerful enough to subdue all and none came to prominence. During this period, people migrated in and out of Limbuwan region and around 6th century AD, a batch of people from Shan-Makwan area in China/Burma area moved to Assam in India and eventually to Limbuwan area in Nepal. The Assimilation of the original Kirants of Limbuwan, migrants of Tibetans, Mongols, and tribes from the Bihar area and finally the migrant people of Shan-Makwan will give birth to a new nation of Limbuwan, nationality of Limbu and the Limbu culture.

The revolution of the Kiranti People in Limbuwan
During the latter years of the rule of eight Kiranti chiefs, the population of Limbuwan multiplied and families increased with numbers. Feeling the crunch and threat, the eight rulers started suppressing the people. Then the descendents of Shan Mokwan people, (the latest immigrants to Limbuwan) could not stand any longer and devised a plan to over throw the eight chiefs. They met at Ambe Pojoma and decided to revolt against the eight chiefs. The rebel leaders erected three stone pillars and planted three mango trees around it. After sprinkling holy waters on it, the rebel leaders and the rebel army took an oath that everyone would fight against the tyrant eight chiefs and would not return home until they beat the rulers. The meeting place of Ambe Pojoma still exists to this day, and the battle of eight chiefs is incorporated in Limbu Mundhum ever since. After knowing that the rebellion was breaking out in their country; the eight rulers raised their own army and aimed at massacring and displacing people of Shan-Mokwan descent. The great Civil war broke out between the eight rulers of Limbuwan and Rebels of Limbuwan. The army of eight rulers were defeated in every village by the rebels. The eight rulers were either killed or chased away from Limbuwan territory.

The Era of Ten Limbu Kings (550 AD to 1609 AD)
Thus, with unity and strength, Kirant people of Shan Mokwan origin defeated their rulers. After their victory, the rebel leaders assembled once again at their holy place Ambe Pojoma. The leaders fixed the northern boundary to be in Tibet, southern boundary in JalalGarh in Bihar; eastern boundary at river Teesta and western boundary in Dudhkoshi River. Later the east and west boundary of Limbuwan came to rest at Arun river in the west and Kanchenjunga mountain plus Mechi river in the east.

The meeting of rebel leaders decided to name the recently acquired country as Limbuwan as it was won by the strength of a Bow and Arrow. [ Li = Bow, ambu = acquire ; Limbu Language] They also decided to divide Limbuwan into ten districts or Kingdoms and place ten kings to rule each kingdom. They also agreed to defend Limbuwan from any external threat by rendering military from all the ten Kingdoms. They changed the name of their nationality to Yakthumba. Originally at the beginning only the Kings of Limbuwan were called Limbus and the people of Limbuwan were called Yakhthungba, but over time all the people of Limbuwan started calling themselves Limbu. Thus, the term Limbu and Yakthungba became synonymous.

This Period in Limbuwan history corresponds to Lichhavi and Malla Dynasty periods in Nepal Valley.

The Ten Rulers, Their Kingdoms and their forts.
1. Samlupi Samba Hang...........King of Tambar and..................his capital Tambar Yiok.
2. Sisiyen Shering Hang.........King of Mewa and Maiwa kingdoms and his capital Meringden Yiok.
3. Thoktokso Angbo Hang.........King of Athraya and.................his capital Pomajong.
4. Thindolung Khokya Hang.......King of Yangwarok and...............his capital Hastapojong Yiok
5. Ye nga so Papo Hang,.........King of Panthar and.................his capital at Yashok and Phedim.
6. Shengsengum Phedap Hang......King of Phedap and..................his capital at Poklabung.
7. Mung Tai Chi Emay Hang.......King of Ilam and....................his capital at Phakphok.
8. Soiyak Lado Hang,............King of Miklung (Choubise) and......his capital at Shanguri Yiok.
9. Tappeso Perung Hang,.........King of Thala and...................his capital at Thala Yiok.
10. Taklung Khewa Hang,........King of Chethar and.................his capital at Chamling Chimling Yiok.

Kings of Ten Limbuwan
King Mung Mawrong Hang
In the beginning of 7th century AD, King Mung Mawrong Hang came to prominence in the terai lands of Limbuwan, ( present day Sunsari, Morang and Jhapa area). He cleared much of the forest area in the present day Rangeli east of Biratnagar and built a town there. Since the Ten Kings of Limbuwan had soverignty over the terai lands through Kingdom of Ilam and Kingdom of Bodhey (Choubise), they assembled a collective Limbuwan force and chased King Mawrong from Rongli area.

Mawrong went to Tibet and took refuge in Khampa Jong, but he still had aimbition to rule all of Limbuwan. When Limbuwan was ruled by ten Kings and when King Mawrong came to prominence, Tibet was ruled by King Tsrong Tsen Gempo. Mawrong went on to ally with Tibetan King Tsrong Tsen Gempo, managed to get Bhutia tribes of Khampa jong to assist him and planned on attacking Limbuwan from the north. King Mawrong attacked Limbuwan, the ten kings of Limbuwan brought their forces and fought decisive battle through Hatia, Walungchung and Tapkey passes in the Himalayas. Ten Kings of Limbuwan lost and King Mawrong rose as the over lord of Limbuwan. The ten Kings of Limbuwan still continued to rule their original places as subordinate to King Mung Mawrong.

King Mawrong also started a festival among Kirant people called “Namban”, where people celebrate the gathering of harvest every year and it falls on the last week of December.

King Mawrong had no male heir so he died and one of his ministers took over and became King Mokwan San. After a brief period King Uba Hang came to prominence in Limbuwan area.

The Era of Lasahang Dynasty
King Uba Hang ( ruled 849-865 AD )
Following the death of King Mawrong, Uba Hang became powerful and renowned in Limbuwan area. He subdued the Limbuwan area which was under King Mokwan San and became King. He is known for introducing new faith among Limbu people and bringing changes to the Kirant mundhum religion. He taught his subjects to worship the great spirit of Tagera Ningwafumang with flowers and fruits, but not with sacrifice and blood.
He built Chempojong fort and palace in Ilam. He introduced the festival of Tong Sum Tong Nam, held every three years in honour of Limbu Ancestor goddess Yumasammang and supreme god Tagera Ningwafumang. This Tong Sum Tong Nam festival is still held in Panchthar district of Nepal and is called Trisala Puja in Nepali language.

King Mabo Hang (ruled 865-880AD)
King Mabo Hang succeeded his father King Uba Hang in Limbuwan. He ruled Limbuwan for 15 years with the title of Thakthakkum Mabo Hang. He was well respected and known in Limbuwan and many also believed him to be the reincarnation of god. He moved his capital from Chempo Jong in Ilam to Yasok Jong in Panchthar.

King Muda Hang
After the death of Mabo hang his son Muda hang succeeded to the throne, but he was a weak king and unlike his father and grandfather he was not able to subdue all the rulers of ten Limbuwan. The ten rulers of Limbuwan declared independence in their own districts and began ruling independently. There was anarchy and chaos in Limbuwan as the rulers and clan chiefs tried to establish their own hagemony over Limbuwan. Thus Limbuwan disintegrated, and Lasa Dynasty kings were reduced to being only kings of Panchthar area and the southern Limbuwan.

King Wedo Hang
In the Chaos and integration of Limbuwan, King Muda hang was succeeded by his son Wedo Hang. He ruled from Hellang palace in Panthar. In Panchthar district King Muda Hang was fighting Nembang hang Chief, the same chief fought with king wedo hang as well. When chief Nembang hang failed to defeat he plotted King Wedo Hang’s assassination, he married his sister Dalima to King Wedo Hang to be close to Hellang Palace. King Wedo Hang was murdered by his enemies while he was sleeping. Queen Dalima, sister of Nembang chief was pregnant with King Wedo’s child at the time of the murder. Chief Pathong Hang sat on the throne of Hellang palace ruling present day Panchthar area. Queen Dalima left Hellang palace and went on to live in Chempojong palace in Ilam. Chempojong palace was the ancestral home of the Lasahang dynasty kings built by King Uba Hang.

King Chemjong Hang
The fifth King of Lasa Dynasty was King Chemjong hang. He was born in Chempojong palace in Ilam where his mother was living. When he was born his mother kept him in disguise by dressing him up as a girl, fearing that Chief Pathong Hang’s people would come and murder him. She told him that his father’s enemy would destroy him if they were to find his true identity. He grew up to be a wise and strong individual under the disguise as a girl. His mother had told him of his late father’s followers in the northern part of Limbuwan. He then made his way there and made alliances with the chiefs. He made a surprise attack while everyone at Hellang palace was celebrating the marriage of one of the district chiefs. After his capture of Hellang palace, he made his identity clear to all those present and they accepted him as the true ruler and heir of late King Wedo Hang. Since he had no real name and that he was born in the old palace of Chempojong, the chiefs assembled decide to name him Chemjong Hang and thus it became his name. He once again tried to unite all of Limbuwan and succeeded in extending from present day Panchthar, Illam, Dhankuta, Sunsari, Morang and Jhapa. Back in those days Morang composed of lower terai lands of Sunsari, Morang and Jhapa. While northern Limbuwan still laid in fragments.

The Era of King Sirijunga (880-915 AD)
King Galijunga who ruled the Yangwarok Kingdom of Limbuwan during the time of King Uba Hang; Ubahang was Galijunga’s overlord at the period. Then King Muda hang became weak and started losing control of all of Limbuwan, the grandson of King Galijung, Sirijunga rose into power in the northern Limbuwan area. King Sirijunga’a ancestors had ruled the Kathmandu valley during the Kirant rea in Nepal.

Unification of Northern Limbuwan
During the anarchic period of King Muda Hang, King Sirijunga became powerful enough to subdue all of Limbu chiefs under his control.

Famous Sirijunga Forts
King Sirijung constructed two big forts at present day Sirjung in Terhathum district and Chainpur in Sankhuwasabha district. The forts were named Sirjunga fort and the remains of the structures still stand today.

King Sirijunga Script
King Sirijunga is also known for deveolping and introducing Sirijunga script to the Limbus, which is still in use today. The Mundhum, Kirant Limbu religious text of Mundhum states that King Sirijunga was asked by Nisammang (Limbu god of learning) to accompany her to the base of mount Phoktanglungma. The goddess took him to the deepest of the caves in the mountain and gave him the stone slab consisting of writings. There he was also blessed with power of knowledge and the goddess taught him how to read and write that language and told him to spread the scriptures to his people. Then King came back to his palace and started teaching the script and knowledge to Limbu people.

Kipat Land system of King Sirijunga
King Sirijunga is also known for his famous land reform law. He introduced a Kipat land system, where by he divided lands to the chiefs of each clan or village and vested them with the full power over his land. The chief’s powers didn’t extend beyond his borders and chiefs were expected to extend full military support from his village during the time of war to all the Kings of Limbuwan for the protection of Limbuwan. One of the important charactersitics of Kipat system was that, neither chief nor his people were allowed to sell their lands to any outsiders or any non clan members. Non clan members were only allowed to rent the land for the period of time and was not supposed to permamnently take the land ownership. The land was to be divided equally among every sons and unmarried daughters. He also decreed that all the chiefs of villages had to have a council called Chumlung of four members to assist him in ruling the villages. The Chief presided over all the clan/village meetings and festivals. He also had enough powers so that his decisions were considered final. Ever since the time of King Sirijunga, Limbu people of Limbuwan have been enjoying special Kipat rights over their lands. No one could take away the Kipat lands and the lands belonged communally to specific clan. Kipat land system devised by King Sirijunga of Limbuwan gained popularity in other Kirant areas in Nepal as well. The Kipat Land System was used by people of Kirant Rai, Kirant Sunuwar and even Tamang people. Following King Sirijunga all the rulers of Limbuwan area up to King Mahendra had promised to uphold the special laws and custom of the Kipat system of Limbuwan during or right after their coronation.

The period of Ten Kings after King Sirijunga
After the death of King Sirijunga, Limbuwan once again is ruled by ten Kings of ten Kingdoms of Limbuwan, this period lasts from 915 AD to 1584 AD. All the ten Kingdoms formed after the great revolution of Limbuwan in 6th century AD stays the same. The current state of Limbu nation, culture, language and ethnicity is believed to have taken shape during this period.

During this period, the lowlands of Limbuwan, (present day terai lands of Sunsari,Morang and Jhapa) collectively known as Morang since the time of King Mung Mawrong Hang, develops as its own Kingdom in its own right. In the beginning of 1400 AD, Morang Kingdom patriates from Kingdom of Ilam and Kingdom of Mikluk Bodhey (Choubise) and starts ruling on its own. Morang Kingdom’s borders were set at Kankai river in the east, Koshi river in the west, Shanguri fort in the north and Jalal garh in India in the south. King Sangla Ing becomes the first king of Lowland Limbuwan kingdom of Morang after 900 years since it last had its own king. He builds alliances with the other Kings of Limbuwan and remains in good terms. He builds his kingdom at Varatappa and rules from there. King Sangla Ing is succeeded by his son Pungla Ing, who later converts into Hinduism and changes his name to Amar Raya Ing.

The Sanglaing Dynasty Kings
King Sangla Ing (First king of Ing Dynasty)
King Pungla Ing; (becomes Amar Raya Ing )
King Kirti Narayan Raya Ing
King Ap Narayan Raya Ing
King Jarai Narayan Raya Ing
King Indhing Narayan Raya Ing
King Bijay Narayan Raya Ing

The last King of Ing Dynasty Kings of Morang Kingdom Bijay Narayan builds good friendship with the King of Phedap Murray Hang Khebang. He then advises King Bijay Narayan to build a new town after his name and thus Bijaypur town was settled. The Bijaypur town, near present day Dharan City remained the capital of Morang Kingdom and that of all of Limbuwan until 1774 AD. King Bijay Narayan then advises King Murray Hang Khebang of Phedap to stay in Bijaypur and assist him in ruling Morang Kingdom as his prime minister. King Murray Hang Khebang agrees to the proposal thus his title of prime minister becomes hereditary to him and his descendents only. In this way King Bijay Narayan Raya Sanglaing effectively makes King Murray Hang his prime minister and while Murray Hang’s son Bajahang Raya Khebang rules the Kingdom of Phedap under his father. King Bijay Narayan also gives the title of Raya “King” in those days to Murray Hang. Since then, King Murray Hang Khebang becomes the first prime minister of Limbuwan and second King of Limbuwan to hold the Hindu title of “Raya”.

Over time, the relationship between King Bijay Narayan Raya Sanlgaing and his primeminister Murray Hang Khebang sours, he alleges Murray hang of rape of his daughter and assigns him death sentence. Hearing the sad news of Murray Hang’s betrayal by the King of Morang, his son King Bajahang Khebang decides to punish the King of Morang. He goes to Makwanpur and ask for the help of King Lo Hang Sen of Makwanpur. King Lohang Sen of Makwanpur with the help of Kirant force conquors Bijaypur in 1608 AD. King of Phedap Bajahang Khebang who had come to take revenge of his father’s death dies at the battle field and at the same time, King Bijay Narayan also dies of natural causes. King Lohang Sen of Makwanpur thus appoints, King Bajahang Khebang’s son, and Murray hang’s grandson Bidya Chandra Raya Khebang as the prime minister of Morang Kingdom and gives him autonomy to rule Morang. Lohang Sen returns to Makwanpur and King Bidya Chandra Raya Khebang goes to Lhasa to get recognition as the real King of Limbuwan. King Bidya Chandra successfully gets the Royal document with the seal of Dalai Lama recognising him as the ruler of all of Phedap and Morang. In the mean time, the rest of the kingdoms of Limbuwan are ruled by their own Kings.

The Era of Divided Limbuwan (1609 to 1741 AD)
The death of King Bijay Narayan Sanglaing of Morang and the subsequent war of revenge by the King of Phedap leads to the conquest of Morang Kingdom of Limbuwan by Lo Hang Sen of Mokwanpur. This event leads to the era of divided Limbuwan because the association of Limbuwan states doesn’t exist anymore. Only few of the ten Kingdoms of Limbuwan actually allies with the Sen King and sees him as their overlord. In the mean time, in 1641 AD, when King Phuncho Namgyal is ordained as the King of Sikkim, independent Limbu Kings of Tambar Kingdom, Yangwarok Kingdom, Panthar Kingdom and Ilam Kingdom allies with the Sikkimese King thus effectively dividing Limbuwan in half in alliance. From the enthronement of King Puncho Namgyal of Sikkim in 1641 AD to 1741 AD, eastern and northern Limbuwan allies with the Kings of Sikkim.

The Era of Namgyal Dynasty in Eastern and Northern Limbuwan (1641-1741AD)
From 1641 AD to 1741 AD for approximately hundred years, Limbu Kings of Tambar, Yangwarok, Panthar and Ilam kingdoms allies with the King of Sikkim and sees him as their overlord. During this time the other Kingdoms of Limbuwan are allied with the Sen King of Makwanpur. King Puncho Namgyal dies in 1670 AD and is succeeded by his Son King Tensong Namgyal, who marries three queens, the youngest queen was from Limbuwan, and her name was Queen Thungwa Mukma, daughter of King of Yangwarok Yong Ya Hang. King Tensong Namgyal of Sikkim builds a new palace and asks his youngest queen to name it. She names it “Song Khim” meaning new home, thus overtime the name changes from Songkhim to Sukkhim to eventually Sikkim. That’s how the name Sikkim came into being. Original name of Sikkim although was Mayel in Lepcha language, Chungjung in Limbu language and Denjong in Bhutia language. King Tensong was succeeded by his son and third king Chhyagdor Namgyal. During his time, Bhutan attacks Sikkim and occupies it for eight years. With the help of Tibetans he regains his throne. He dies in 1716 AD and is succeeded by his son King Gyurmi Namgyal. In 1733 AD King Gyurmi Namgyal of Sikkim dies childless, then his minister declares himself the King of Sikkim under the title of “Tamding Gyalpo” and starts ruling from the throne of Rabdentse palace. He rules from 1738-1741 AD. This throws Limbu allies of Sikkim in disarray as other ministers have placed the infant king on the throne. In the mean time in 1741 AD, a Limbu scholar named Srijunga Sing Thebe of Yangwarok Kingdom of Limbuwan comes to western Sikkim to teach Limbu script and literature to the Kirant people of western Sikkim. The Tibetan Tachhang Lamas of Pemayangtse monastery fears the Limbu Sirijunga Xin Thebe’s actions. They kill him by tying him on the tree and shooting him to death by arrows. This cumulates to anger in Limbuwan and the Kings of all the Kingdoms of Limbuwan that have allied with the King of Sikkim in 1641 AD breaks off ties and stop regarding Kings of Sikkim as their overlord and Ally. Thus Namgyal dynasty ends in Limbuwan in 1741 AD, after breaking off of ties with Sikkim, the four Limbu Kings and their Kingdoms remain neutral and independent.

The Era of Sen Dynasty in Western and Southern Limbuwan (1609-1769AD)
From 1609 to 1769 AD for about 160 years, the Sen Kings of Makwanpur are Nominal kings of Morang and allied to other remaining five kings of Limbuwan. The era of Sen Dynasty in Limbuwan begins with the conquest of Morang kingdom by King Lo Hang Sen to avenge the death of the prime minister of Morang.

King Lo Hang Sen (1609-1661 AD)
Following the enthronement of King Lo Hang Sen to the throne of Morang Kingdom at Bijaypur, Limbuwan also enters the phase of Hindu influence. All the Kings of Limbuwan, their ministers, and their chiefs start changing their original Kirant Limbu names into Hindu names. King Lo Hang Sen rules from 1609 to 1641 AD, he manages to get all the Kings of Limbuwan who are not allied with Sikkim to get on to his side. He promises to Limbu people and their chiefs that the practice of Kipat Land System, Limbu language, culture and way of life that have been in practice for thousand of years will always be protected. He also promises to Kings of Limbu kingdoms that they would get full autonomy and power to rule their own kingdoms. Thus, this way King Lo Hang Sen manages to become the King of Kings in Limbuwan and takes the title of Maharajadhiraj. He appoints three Limbu ministers in his court in Makwanpur. In the mean time, Kingdom of Morang with its capital Bijaypur is ruled by the descendents of King Murray Hang Khebang, the Prime Ministers during the Sanglaing Dynasty.

King Harihar Sen (1661 – 1684 AD)
King Harihar Sen, the grandson of Lo Hang Sen succeeds his grandfather to the throne of Morang. He extends Morang up to Gondwara in Bihar, gives himself the title of “Hindupati Maharaj”, and builds a new palace in Chanjitpur in lower Morang. He places his grandson Bidhata Indra Sen on the throne of Morang. This is not liked by Hahrihar Sen’s sons so the civil war breaks out. In this chaos, Subha Sen, the younger son of King Harihar Sen turns out victorious and starts ruling Morang.

King Subha Sen ruled Morang for 22 years, in the mean time King Bidhata Indra Sen is also ruling Morang. Both King Subha Sen and Bidhata Indra Sen is then tricked into coming to the palace of Nawab of Purnea, who then betrays them and sends into disposal of the Mughal Emperor in Delhi, both the Uncle and Nephew Kings die in the hands of Mughal Emperor. After finding out about this betrayal, Queen Padmidhata Induraj Rajeswari, wife of King Bidhata Indra Sen, calls upon all the allies of Morang Kingdom. All the nine Kings of Limbuwan are called upon by the queen to assist her in punishing the Nawab of Purnea.

Queen Padmidhata Induraj Rajeswari Sabitra Sen (1706-1725 AD)
The Kings ruling nine Kingdoms of Limbuwan at that time were, Chemjong King, Pasenama King, Lingdom King, Khewa King, Sukmi King, Makkhim King, Vaji King, Gabha King, and Shah Hang King. They were titled Roy by the Sen Kings of Morang, Roy was equivalent of King.
Another war of revenge breaks out with the united forces of Limbuwan under the command of Chemjong King and the Nawab of Purnea at Jalal Garh. Limbuwan forces turn out victorious; their leaders establish the boundary at Jalal Gurh in the south.

The Kings of Limbuwan then decide to bring the capital city of Morang back to Bijaypur from Chanjitpur. The kings place Queen Padmidhata Indurajrajeswari to the throne of Bijaypur. Meanwhile, the same Khebang dynasty kings of Phedap serve as Prime minister of Morang and other Limbus serve as ministers and chautariayas.

In 1721 AD, about fifteen years after the War of revenge with the Nawabs of Purnia, Limbuwan establishes friendly and trading relations with Kingdom of Purnea in the south. King Pasenama who was also a minister of Morang went to Purnea and established the bilateral relationship.

King Mahipati Sen (1725-1761 AD)
After almost twenty years of reign, Queen Padmidhata dies. Kings of Limbuwan and their minsters assemble and elect Mahipati Sen of Makwanpur, son of late King Subha Sen as the King of Morang and Places him on the throne in Bijaypur. He effectively becomes King of Kings of Limbuwan or Maharajadhiraja of Limbuwan. Mahipati Sen was a weak King, he had no legitimate issue, but had eighteen illegitimate sons. Kamadatta Sen, the eldest of the illegitimate sons would succeed King Mahipati Sen of Morang and Maharajadhiraj of Limbuwan.

King Kamadatta Sen (1761-1769 AD)
During the reign of King Mahipati Sen, Prime minister of Morang was King Bichitra Chandra Raya Khebang of Phedap Kingdom. When Mahipati Sen died, he didn’t allow Kamadatta Sen to be the full ruler of Morang Kingdom because he thought Kamadatta was illegitimate. During this time, Sen Kings had given much of the terai lands of Morang to the Limbu Kings and chiefs for their personal jagir believing that they would not revolt against them.
The feud between King Kamdatta Sen and his Prime Minister grows as the tension of power struggle increases; Prime Minister Bichitra Chandra Raya Khebang is succeeded by his son Buddhi Karna Raya Khebang. Buddhi Karna pursues his father’s policy of disengaging Kamadatta Sen from the state affairs. Then finally Kamadatta Sen has had it, comes to Bijaypur and occupies the throne and expels Buddhi Karna out of Morang. Buddhi Karna goes to Rabdentse palace in Sikkim to get help.

Kamadatta Sen turns out to be worthy ruler and establishes good relations with everyone. He declares that all the Limbu Kings of Limbuwan, their ministers and chiefs to of his lineage and that they are to be treated as his own family. He also marries Princess Thangsama Angbohang, sister of King of Athroya in Limbuwan. He appoints King Shamo Raya Chemjong of Miklung Bodhey Kingdom (Choubise) to be his Prime Minister and requests him to come to his palace in Bijaypur and manage his country. He once again guarantees autonomy and Kipat to all the people and Chiefs of Limbuwan. He establishes friendly relations with the King of Bhutan, King of Sikkim and Tibet. King Dev Zudur of Bhutan even sent his representatives in King Kama Datta Sen’s coronation. Morang and Limbuwan also already had good relations with Kingdom of Purnea in the south. He also develops good relations with King Ranjit Malla of Bhaktapur.

Thus with his appeasement policies to the people of Limbuwan and good relations with the neighbouring states of Limbuwan, he was gaining much confidence and popularity in Limbuwan.

Meanwhile, in 1769 AD, exiled and unhappy Prime minister of Morang Buddhi Karna plans a conspiracy to assassinate King Kama Datta Sen. Buddhi Karna’s assassins executes King Kama Datta Sen in Morang in his way to a meeting.

The Era of Divided Limbuwan
King Buddhi Karna Raya Khebang of Morang ( 1769-1773 AD)
After the assassination of Kama Datta Sen, Buddhi Karna came to Bijaypur and became the last King of Morang and Limbuwan. But after hearing the death of King Kama Datta Sen all the states that made up Limbuwan and that allied with Morang split up. No Kings of Limbuwan had allegiance to Buddhi Karna anymore. He seriously needed able ministers and chiefs to assist him in ruling Morang and all of Limbuwan. He sent people to look for King Shamo Raya Chemjong of Miklung Bodhey Kingdom to help him.

During this time,
King Shridev Roy Phago............................King of Maiwa Kingdom,
King Raina Sing Raya Sering.......................King of Mawa Kingdom,
King Ata Hang.....................................King of Phedap Kingdom,
King Subhawanta Libang ...........................King of Tambar Kingdom,
King Yong Ya Hang.................................King of Yangwarok Kingdom,
King Thegim Hang..................................King of Panthar Kingdom,
King Lingdom Hang.................................King of Ilam Kingdom,
King Shamo Roya Chemjong Hang.....................King of Miklung Bodhey (Choubise, included southern Panther)
King Khewa Hang...................................King of Chethar (included Dasmajhiya, Jalhara and Belhara areas)
king Buddhi Karna Raya Khebang....................King of Morang (included present day Sunsari, Morang and Jhapa areas)

King Shamo Raya Chemjong was responsible for leading the Kings of Limbuwan and chiefs of Limbuwan in signing a treaty with the King of Gorkha. King Shamo Chemjong was also the Prime minister of Morang Kingdom and effectively ruled Morang when King Buddhi Karna was away from Bijaypur to seek help from the British. King of Ilam, King Lingdom’s son was the last King of Limbuwan to sign a treaty with the King of Gorkha.
Limbuwan Gorkha War ended in 1774 AD following a treaty between the King of Gorkha and Kings of Limbuwan and their ministers in Bijaypur, Morang.

...

The Era of Shah Dynasty in Limbuwan
King Prithivi Narayan Shah ( 1768 – 1775 AD)
Major role that King Prithivi Narayan played in Limbuwan history is the incorporation of Limbuwan lands into his Gorkha Kingdom. Following this Gorkha Empire became Nepal. Former ten Kingdoms of Limbuwan were divided into seventeen districts; the former Kings became Subbas under the new King and were granted autonomy, which was eroded over time. Kipat rights included ownership of Rice fields, pasture fields, forests, water sources, rivers and mineral resources. While the rest of Nepal had “Raikar” system of land ownership only Limbuwan had state sanctioned “Kipat” system. The policy of autonomy to Limbuwan by the Gorkha King was to ensure that Limbus always stayed loyal to them. Thus it would be easier for the Gorkhas to both conquer Sikkim and subdue Limbu brethrens Kirant Khambu (Rais) of Majh Kirant at the same time. This was exemplary of divide and rule policy of the Shah rulers.

King Rana Bahadur Shah ( 1777- 1799 AD)
The grandson of King Prithvi Narayan Shah, King Rana Bahadur Shah’s role in Limbuwan was limited to arming the former Kings of Limbuwan, now the Subbas and chiefs; to fight with Sikkim. He called them to Kathmandu and under the incharge of four former Kings of Limbuwan, King of Gorkha handed about 107 guns, 935 swords and 825 bows to raise a Limbu army and fight with Sikkim.

King Girvana Juddha Bikram Shah ( 1799-1816 AD)
Following the occupation of Sikkim west of Teesta River, Nepal was again plunged into a war with Tibet and eventually with China. During the war with Tibet, Sumur Lama of Tibet had taken refuge in Kathmandu, when Nepal refused to hand him back to China, the war broke out with Nepal and Tibet/China. In this time, the Chinese have incited people of Limbuwan to revolt against their Gorkha King. General Tung Thang sent Guns, gun powders, cannons and other weapons to Limbus in Limbuwan. It was said about 1000 pathis of gunpowder and 500 pathis of lead were went to limbus.

Rebellions in Limbuwan
In 1867, Dashain was boycotted in Dhankuta in protest of eroding Limbuwan peoples’ cultural rights. The state government forced people of Limbuwan to celebrate Dashain or else they had to bear the consequences. This was forceful to the people of Limbuwan so revolt started in Dhankuta and spread out. Gorkha rulers soon suppressed the protest with two deaths.
In 1870, Limbu language suppression policy of the Ranas led to another uprising in Limbuwan. Limbu script or education in Limbu language was thought of as anti nationalistic so the state adopted the policy to suppress all ethnic and aboriginal languages and cultures of Nepal. Many Limbus were either executed or chased away from their motherland.

King Tribhuwan (1913 – 1955 AD)
King Tribhuwan’s rule saw several changes in system of Kipat in Limbuwan. Although Ranas had taken away the rights of Forest and other mineral rights of Kipat system, further more deduction was to come. In 1913 AD, the government brought in a legislation that stated that any new lands that are brought under cultivation in Limbuwan will be turned into a Raikar land. This was specifically designed to target the new farm lands that had been carved out from the forest and pasture areas. But once again, that was against the spirit of Gorkha Limbuwan Treaty of 1774 AD where by the State was supposed to let Limbus use their lands in what ever way according to the Kipat system. According to Treaty of 1774 and the Kipat system, if a forest land were to be turned into a farm land, by consent and approval of Subha and Chumlung of the area, then it was not supposed to be any issue to the state. Besides, Forests and Pasture lands along with river and water bodies with mineral rights were enshrined in Kipat system. In 1917 Rana government’s unilateral legislation stated that Kipat lands of Limbuwan can be turned into “Raikar” lands if the Limbu owners couldn’t pay off loan in six months effectively. It was totally against the Treaty of 1774 AD, which specifically stated that the lands of Limbuwan east of Arun River can never be transferred to Raikar system. Up to 1920 the Subha and their Chumlung also had power to hold courts according to tradition in their jurisdiction.

Limbus of Ilam rose up in resistance
Similarly in 1926, the Rana government introduced the Panchayat system of government in Limbuwan, accordingly these Panchayat systems replaced the Subha and Chumlung system of government in Limbuwan which was also held up by the Gorkha-Limbuwan Treaty of 1774 AD. Limbus of Ilam rose in resistance against the government policies of gradually nibbling away the rights given by the 1774 treaty. Thus in this way State tried to eat away the autonomy and the rights of Limbu people of Limbuwan. Most interesting and unfair part of this whole saga was that, never were any Limbu Subha or Chumlung members asked nor were their opinion taken into any consideration. Treaties and agreements are signed or dissolved with the agreement of two sides, but Gorkha-Limbuwan Treaty of 1774 AD was never consulted and state unilaterally displaced the people of Limbuwan. In the mean time, government of Nepal continued its encouragement of mass immigration of non Limbu/non Kirant people into Limbuwan to exploit Kipat lands. In 1950-51 AD, when there was political movement going on in rest of Nepal; there was also a Limbu/Kiranti insurgency going on in Limbuwan protesting for more political rights.

King Mahendra (1955 – 1972 AD)
There was always a tradition from the time of Ten Limbu Kings, that whenever a new King was crowned or new government took change, the delegation of Subha and Chumlung members would go to the capital city and voice their concerns. In 1960, a delegation of Limbu Subhas from Chumlungs across Limbuwan region went to Kathmandu to remind the King about the Gorkha-Limbuwan Treaty of 1774 AD and also to get the guarantee about rights of Limbuwan. Following his meeting with the Limbuwan delegation, King even issued royal decrees stating the “Traditional rights and privileges of Limbu people in Limbuwan will be protected”, in reference to the treaty.

In 1964 King Mahendra and his government introduced the Land Reform Act, where by the government was to confiscate any land holdings that exceeded 1.8 hectares. This was applied to all of Nepal, but Limbuwan was a different case because lands of Limbuwan once again were under Kipat system and not Raikar system. The land could not have been sold or owned personally other than Kipat holders anyways, it was communal belonging to a clan/group of people. But once again, going against the spirit of 1774 Treaty, eroding democratic values, and neglecting the people of Limbuwan, the government did not consult with the original people of Limbuwan or the Treaty of 1774 AD and went ahead with their land surveying in Limbuwan. King Prithvi Narayan Shah had agreed that he would not survey, designate or take away lands of Limbuwan from the original people.

Limbuwan Rebellion against the Land Reform Act 1964
Soon after the introduction of Land Reform Act, Subhas of Limbuwan and many other Limbu individuals raised the issue and implications of Land Reform Act on Limbuwan and the existing Treaty. Limbus clearly knew that this was another act to chew away the “treaty protected traditional” rights of Limbu people over their lands. The situation was tense as very next day the non Limbu tenants of Kipat Lands where the immigrants lived for rent over period of time could solely own the lands. The very existence of Limbu people, culture, tradition and their autonomy was in danger. King Prithvi Narayan Shah had promised to Limbus that he wouldn’t survey the Lands of Limbuwan, because he didn’t own them but only the people of Limbuwan did. Similarly after the 1964 Land reforms act, King Mahendra had promised delegation of Limbuwan that he would not take away their lands but he died without and accomplishment to save the Limbu peoples’ autonomy.

The reasons why Kipat system in Limbuwan became a problem for the State and Hindu settlers

  1. State had no authority over Kipat Lands in Limbuwan.
  2. State could not generate revenue or make use of Lands in Limbuwan because Limbus owned the rights to rivers, waters, forests, mines and minerals.
  3. Limbu Kipat owners can anytime ask their tenants to move away from their Kipat lands.
  4. Due to its strategic location and being far away from the capital, state had to exert its control over the people of Limbuwan by mass immigrating Hindu settlers to keep rebellious Limbus on check.

Before Land reform act, of Nepal’s total cultivable land, almost 95% or about 2.1 million hectares land was under Raikar system, and 2% or about 40000 hectares of land was under Guthi organisation. Only 3% or 77000 hectares of land was under Kipat system. The main difference once again was that, all the lands of Nepal was owned by state and given by state to people for ownership under Raikar system. Raikar lands had ownership documents given by the state and most importantly Raikar lands could be sold to anyone. Whereas in Kipat system communal/clan authority owned the lands, Kipat lands were not granted because of the royal or state authority, the owner owned it because he/she belonged to a clan that owned the land forever. Lands in Limbuwan were never conquered by the state and since the treaty existed that upheld the Kipat rights, it was illegal for the same state and authority that promised to uphold the privilege on one hand and take it away piece by piece by the other hand. Regmi states that the King and State had no authority over Kipat lands, communal authority was supreme.

In the treaty of 1774, King Prithvi Narayan Shah swore that “in case we confiscate your lands, may our ancestral gods destroy our kingdom and descendents” Regmi further claims that this oath was restated by every other monarch after King Prithvi Narayan. Every new King promised and pledged to maintain Kipat rights but they on the other hand sponsored those policies that slowly took away the Kipat Rights slowly.

King Birendra (1972-2001 AD)
Panchayat regime adopted the old policy of “One country one king, one language one culture” of course it was sponsored by the state and Nepali language and Hindu religion was imposed on everyone. The existence of other religion, custom, language and traditions were looked upon and not encouraged. Since the implementation of Land Reforms Acts, there had been protests and disgruntled towards the state for mismanaging, mistreating and most importantly betraying the Limbus. In 1968, Limbu delegation that had gone to express their dissatisfaction over the single handed Treaty violation were jailed and tortured. Similarly the pioneers of Limbuwan Liberation Front Party members were jailed and tortured for three years for distributing pamphlets and trying to educate Limbus of their own rights. In 1972 few other Limbuwan Liberation members took a delegation to the new King Birendra and tried to revive the Limbuwan Autonomy issue but were soon suppressed. Restoration of Democracy came in 1990, the following election, Limbuwan Liberation Front, being the first Party to raise the Limbuwan issue and Limbuwan Autonomy and rights of Limbu people based on Limbuwan Gorkha Treaty of 1774 AD was denied by the Nepal Election Commission to run in election. While religious Hindu fundamentalist parties were allowed to run in the election.

The Republican era and now in Limbuwan
Following the relinquishment of power by then King Gyanendra, People of Limbuwan and Limbuwan Concerned parties became the first group to voice their pain and organised a first peaceful strike to let the people of Nepal know how unfairly they had been treated and how far they are willing to go for justice. August 7-9 in 2007 was the first of many peaceful strike and protest programs of Federal Limbuwan State Council and other parties. The demand remains as ever as always, the true autonomy based on 1774 AD and recognition of indigenous rights.

Understanding the sentiments of people of Limbuwan, various political parties such as Maoists and others included Federalism in their manifestoes. United Nations Draft Declaration on the rights of Indigenous People has also brought new hopes on legally achieving the rights that people of Limbuwan lost unfairly. Kirant Yakthung Chumlung, an organisation of Limbu people has come up with a policy and views on going forward with the Kipat and Land issue of Limbuwan.

Future of Limbuwan
It is almost certain that Limbuwan will become one of the Federal Province or State within the frame work of Nepalese Constitution and Nepalese Unity. As people of Limbuwan are coming out of the dark shadows of the repressive past, Limbus and people of Limbuwan aspire to bring new hope, new development and new future to a Land that has existed so long with such an old history.

References
References: Published Books
Bharatiya Bidhya Bhawan. “The History and Culture of Indian People” ,military help of Kirant King Parbatak Hang to King Chandra Gupta.
Bista, D.B. "Fatalism and Development", 1994
Bhattachan, K.B. "Expected Model and Process of Inclusive Democracy in Nepal"
Caplan, L. "Land and Social changes in East Nepal"
Chemjong, Iman Sing. "History and Culture of Kirant People"
Forbes, A. A. "The Disclosure and practice of Kipat"
Gurung, H. "Trident and Thunderbolt" Cultural Dynamics in Nepalese Politics
Hodgson, B. “Essays relating to Indian Subjects", 1880, about Kirant people and their languages.
Hooker, Sir John. “Himalayan Journal”
Hamilton, F. "Account of the Kingdom of Nepal"
Kirkpatrick, Lt. Col. “ An account of the Kingdom of Nepal”
Pradhan, K. "The Gorkha Conquest: The process and consequences of the Unification of Nepal with Particular Reference to Eastern Nepal"
Regmi, M.C. "Land Tenure and Taxation in Nepal"
Shrestha, S.K. "Historical Study of Limbuwan"
Stiller, F. "The Silent Cry: The people of Nepal"
Subba, T.B. "Politics of Culture: A study of Three Kirata Communities in the Eastern Himalayas"
References: Unpublished

Brian Hodgson, "The Kirant History in Kirant script", stored in India Office Library, London collected by Hodgson B.
Maharaja Thutob Namgyal of Sikkim, "The Sikkim history"
The Dalai Lama 14th century, "Seal given to the Limbu kings"
Gorkha King Prithvi Narayan Shah, "The Treaty and seal given in 1774 AD" to Limbu Kings
The Gorkha Kings, " Various Seals given to Limbu kings and chiefs"

References: internet
Limbuwan-Gorkha War
Kirant Yakthung Chumlung
http://www.magarstudiescenter.org/
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Limbuwan"

Interduction of limbuwan

Posted by limbu at 6:34 PM

Limbuwan

Limbuwan was a kingdom, now part of Nepal. Literally, Limbuwan means "abode of the Limbus", or "land of the Limbus". Limbus themselves call Limbuwan as “Yakthung Laaje” or “the country of the Yakthungs”. Ref: History of Limbuwan. Today Limbuwan comprises districts of Taplejung, Panchthar, Ilam, Jhapa, Terhathum, Sankhuwasabha, Dhankuta, Sunsari and Morang. Limbuwan is the land east of Arun and Koshi rivers, and west of Kanchenjunga Mountain range and Mechi river. The seat of power in Kathmandu and western Nepalese refer to Limbuwan as Pallo Kirant region or far kirant, due to its distance from Kathmandu.

The beginnings
It was then the Ten Kings of Limbus came together to formally declare all the ten Kingdoms between the Arun river and Teesta river to be called as “Yakthung Laaje” .
The Ten Rulers, Their Kingdoms and their forts.
1. Samlupi Samba Hang, King of Tambar and his capital Tambar Yiok.
2. Sisiyen Shering Hang, King of Mewa and Maiwa kingdoms and his capital Meringden Yiok.
3. Thoktokso Angbo Hang, King of Athraya and his capital Pomajong.
4. Thindolung Khokya Hang, King of Yangwarok and his capital Hastapojong Yiok
5. Yengaso Papo Hang, King of Panthar and his capital at Yashok and Phedim.
6. Shengsengum Phedap Hang, King of Phedap and his capital at Poklabung.
7. Mung Tai Chi Emay Hang, King of Ilam and his capital at Phakphok.
8. Soiyak Lado Hang, King of Bodhey (Choubise) and his capital at Shanguri Yiok.
9. Tappeso Perung Hang, King of Thala and his capital at Thala Yiok.
1. Taklung Khewa Hang, King of Chethar and his capital at Chamling Chimling Yiok.

Rise of King Mawrong
After a brief period, King Mawrong Hang came to prominence and took over Terai lands of Chethar, Bodhey, Panthar and Ilam (present day Jhapa, Morang Sunsari and Dhankuta). He named his Kingdom Morang after his name and rose to power. He subdued all the Ten Limbu Kings of Limbuwan and became their overlord. He died with out any male heir and King Uba Hang took over as supreme ruler of Limbuwan in 849 AD- 865 AD. He made many religious and social reforms in Limbuwan. Uba Hang’s worthy son Mabo Hang succeeded him in 865 AD and ruled till 880 AD. Uba hang kept on with the reforms his father had started. Uba Hang was succeeded by his son Muda Hang. Muda Hang was a weak ruler so the local chiefs started ruling their areas independently. Muda Hang was succeeded by his son Wedo Hang, by this time Limbuwan was in chaos and every principality was ruling independently and fighting with each other. Wedo hang was murdered and his son Chemjonghang succeeded.

Rise of King Sirijonga
During this chaos and the waning phase of King Chemjonghang, King Sirijonga of Yangwarok kingdom rose to power. He subdued all the independent rulers and took over as the new supreme ruler of Limbuwan. He built two big forts in Phedap (present day Terhathum district) and Chainpur (present day Sankhuwasabha district). The remains of the structure still stand today. One of legacy was that he brought all the Limbus under the same writing system in Kirat script. He also brought feudal reform in Limbuwan and divided Limbuwan into new boundaries and districts.

Eventually after the establishment of Namgyal Dynasty in Sikkim and under the Lho-Mehn-Tsong Tsum, a treaty between the Bhutia, Lepcha and Limbu people of the Sikkim area, Limbuwan lost the area between Kunchenjunga range (present day eastern border of Nepal) and Teesta River to the Bhutia Kings of Sikkim. Since then Limbuwan comprises all the area between Arun River and Koshi River in the west to Kunchenjunga Mountains and Mechi River in the east.

In the beginning of 15th century, the descendants of King Sirijonga became weak and Limbuwan again fell into chaos and anarchy. At the time Lowland Limbuwan Kingdom of Morang was ruled by King Sangla Ing. Sangla Ing declared independence and became the first independent ruler of Morang in a century. His son Pungla Ing adopted Hinduism and changed his name into Aamar Raya Ing. He was succeeded by his descendents, who also bore Hindu names. Kirti Narayan Raya Ing, Aap Narayan Raya Ing, Jarai Narayan Raya Ing, Ding Narayan Raya Ing, and Bijay Narayan Raya Ing.

King Bijay Narayan Raya Sanlga Ing built a new town in the middle of Varatappa and Shangori fort and named it Bijaypur after him. He had no issue and died without an heir.

Bijaypur town was founded in 1584 AD and is currently located next to Dharan, Sunsari District. Bijaypur town remained the capital of Morang Kingdom and Limbuwan region until the Gorkha Limbuwan War in 1774 AD.

Morang Kingdom was the most powerful and influential of all the Kingdoms in Limbuwan region and was able to establish its hegemony among all the other Limbu rulers. But in 1609 AD Kirant King Lo hang Sen of Sen dynasty captured Morang and ruled it for seven generations.
King of Phedap Murray Hang was made the chief minister of Morong. He stayed in Bijaypur and the King of Morong made his post hereditary. Murray Hang was given a Hindu name and he became Bidya Chandra Raya . His descendents remained Chief Ministers of Morong until Buddhi Karna Raya . Buddhi Karna Raya succeeded the last Sen King of Morang Kama Datta sen and sat in the throne of Bijaypur Palace in 1769 AD.
Today Limbuwan people want Limbuwan autonomy.

Annexation into Nepal
Meanwhile, the Gorkha King Prithivi Narayan Shah was in is campaign to conquest all the hilly kingdoms into his Empire. He attacked Limbuwan in two fronts. After the Limbuwan Gorkha War 1771-1774 AD, the Limbu ministers of Morong, and Limbu rulers of the ten principalities came to an agreement with the King of Gorkha. With the Limbuwan Gorkha treaty of 1774, Limbuwan was annexed to Nepal. Limbuwan was attacked several times by Sikkim after 1774 AD. Battle of Morong during the British Gurkha war took place in Morong. Limbuwan was divided into present day administrative districts in Panchayat era by King Mahendra. Taplejung, Ilam, Panthar and Morang was named after their original names, where as names of the other districts in Limbuwan were Hinduised.

Aboriginal inhabitants
The original inhabitants of Limbuwan are The Kirats i.e. Limbus, Yakkha, Athpahariya, Yamphu, Meches, and Dhimal. From the establishment of Limbuwan, these cultures have maintained their independent identity in Limbuwan coexisting peacefully with each other.

Immigration
The later arrivals are Newars, Bahuns and Chettris as missionaries of Hindu religion in the 1790s during the reign of King Prithivi Narayan Shah, Pratap Singh Shah and Rana Bahadur Shah. The Gurungs, Magars and Tamangs living in Limbuwan are also later arrivals who came as soldiers of Gorkha King during the Limbuwan Gorkha War in 1780s. The madheshi settlers moved north and east from the Mithila region in the west, and thus also came during this time to cultivate the terai lands of Limbuwan. Although Limbus, Dhimals, Koche and Yakkha are the aboriginal and native inhabitants of Limbuwan, there are a minority in their own territory today, due to mass immigration in eighteenth century sponsored by King of Nepal to cultivate the fertile lands of Limbuwan.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 


 

किरात मुन्धुम किरात भूमिको सम्बन्ध

वर्तमान विश्व आधुनिकमात्र नभएर उत्तरआधुनिक सोचमा चल्न थालेको छ । उत्तरआधुनकि सोचले कुनै कुरालाई वा कुनै बुझाइ वा दृष्टिकोणलाई अन्तिम सत्य मान्दैन । वर्तमान विश्वमा अगाडि आएको यस उत्तरआधुनिक सोचले कुनै कुरालाई बहस गर्न थप सजिलो बनाएको छ । यस लेखमा उठाइएका सवालहरु पनि बहसका लागि मात्र हुन् ।

विद्वानहरुका विचारमा 'दर्शन भनेको बुझाइ वा हेराइ हो जब कुनै बुझाइ वा हेराइ व्यवहारमा परिणत हुन्छ तब सभ्यताको जन्म हुन्छ ।' विश्वमा प्राचीन मानिएका यस्ता धेरै दर्शनहरु छन् । यस्ता प्राचीन दर्शनहरुमध्येको आफूलाई प्राचीन दर्शनका रुपमा व्याख्या गर्दै आउने अर्को एक दर्शन 'रकिरात दर्शन' पनि हो ।
किरात दर्शन किरातीहरुको दर्शन हो । विश्वका विभिन्न भागमा छरिएर बसोबास गरेता पनि मूलरुपमा नेपालको पूर्वी भू-भागमा किरातीहरुको बसोबास रहेको पाइन्छ र हिजो आज पनि यो क्षेत्र माझ किरात र पल्लो किरात नामले चिनिने गरेको पाइन्छ । किरातीहरुले किरात धर्मलाई अनुसरण गर्दछन् । किरात धर्मको मूल धार्मिक ग्रन्थ मुन्धुम हो जुन किरातीहरुको सिङ्गो इतिहास हो । किरातीहरुको सिङ्गो इतिहास बोकेको किरात मुन्धुम र किरातीहरुको बसोबास रहेको यो भूमिबीचमा के कस्तो ऐतिहासिक सम्बन्ध रहेको छ भनेर यस लेखमा चर्चा गर्न खोजिएको छ ।

किरात परिचय
किरात शब्द कुनै जात भूगोल रगत अनुहार वर्ण आकार वा समयको नाम होइन । किरात शब्दले सभ्यता संस्कृति जीवनपद्धति सोचाइ अवधारणा मूल्य-मान्यता र दर्शनलाई बुझाउँदछ । किरात शब्द एक समयमा विकसित भएको सभ्यता वा सोचाइको नाम हो जीवनपद्धतिको नाम हो । आज जे जति किराती भनेर कहलिँदै आएका जाति वा समुदाय छन् ती जाति वा समुदाय भनेका त्यो सभ्यता सोचाइ वा जीवनपद्धतिहरु विकास गर्दै र अनुशरण गर्दै आइरहेका समुदाय हुन् ।

इतिहासलाई हेर्ने हो भने किरात सोचाइ वा किरात दर्शन एक प्राचीन दर्शन हो । यो दर्शन सभ्यता वा सोचाइलाई अनुशरण गर्दै आउने समुदाय वा जातिहरु पनि प्राचीन जाति हुन् भन्ने कुरा इतिहासकारहरुले पनि स्वीकारेका छन् । प्रसिद्ध किरात इतिहासकार इमानिसं चेम्जोङले 'किरात शब्दको उत्पति भूमध्यसागरीय क्षेत्रको मोआवाइट भाषाको किरियात् भन्ने शब्दबाट भएको हो । जसको अर्थ किल्ला वा शहर हुन्छ' भनेर उल्लेख गरेका छन् । (Chemjong - The History and Culture of Kirat People). त्यस्तै चेम्जोङले 'किरात साहित्यको इतिहास' नामक पुस्तक तथा Sir John Hammerton को Ancient History शीर्षक लेखमा प्राचीन वेविलोन र मेसोपोटामियाको सभ्यताहरुसित किरातहरुको सम्बन्ध थियो भन्ने कुरा पुष्टि गर्ने प्रयास गरेका छन् । यसबाट के अनुमान गर्न सकिन्छ भने मान्छेहरुले जङ्गगलबाट निस्केर भू-मध्यसागरीय क्षेत्रमा प्रथम बस्ती बसाले । जहाँ उनीहरुले आphooले प्राप्त गरेका अनुभव अनुभूतिहरुलाई संगालेर प्रथम मानव सभ्यताको विकास गरेका थिए । त्यहीबाट नयाँ भूमिको खोजीमा निस्किएका एक समूह यात्राका अनेकौं अनुभूति संगालेर हिामालयको काखमा आई बस्ती बसाले । जहाँ उनीहरुले आफ्नो अनुभूतिका आधारमा किरात दर्शनको विकास गरे ।

हिन्दु धर्मको प्राचीन ग्रन्थहरुमा पनि किरात शब्दको प्रशस्त मात्रामा उल्लेख भएको पाइन्छ । यसबाट पनि के स्पष्ट हुन्छ भने भारतीय उपमहादिपमा आर्यनहरुको प्रवेश हुनुभन्दा पूर्व यहाँ किरातहरुले आवाद गरेको थिए । नेपालकै इतिहासमा पनि काठमाडौं उपत्यकालाई केन्द्र बनाएर ३२ पुस्तासम्म शासन गरेको इतिहास पाइन्छ । अहिले पनि नेपालमा बसोबास गर्ने आर्य मुलका बाहेक सम्र्पूण जनजातिहरु किरात हुन् भनेर विशिष्ट विद्वानहरुले औंल्याइरहेका छन् । तर पनि किरात शब्द नेपालको पूर्वी भूभाग माझ किरात र पल्लो किरात तथा अधिकरुपमा त्यस क्षेत्रमा बसोबास गर्ने लिम्बू राई याख्खा र सुनुवारजस्ता जातिहरुले मात्र किरातका रुपमा स्वीकारेका छन् ।

यसरी वर्तमान अवस्थामा लिम्बू राई याख्खा र सुनुवारहरुले मात्र हामी किराती हौं । नेपालमा ३२ पुस्तासम्म शासन गर्ने ती शासकहरु हाम्रा पुर्खा हुन् र विश्वका प्राचीन सभ्यताहरुसँग हाम्रो सम्बन्ध छ भनेर स्वीकार्नु वा दावी गर्नुमा उनीहरुका इतिहासको अलावा उनीहरुको बुझाइ वा दार्शनिक पक्ष पनि जिम्मेवार छ । अझ नेपालको पूर्वी भूभागलाई किरात प्रदेश वा किरात क्षेत्रका रुपमा परिचित हुनका मूख्य कारण उनीहरुको हजारौं वर्षको भोगाइ सोचाइ जीवन र जगतलाई हेर्ने किरातीपनको दृष्टिकोण मुन्धुम ले त्यस भूमिसँग गाँसिदिएको सम्बन्ध पनि हो ।

किरात मुन्धुम
पुर्खाहरुको हजारौं वर्षको भोगाइ सोचाइ अवधारणा मूल्य मान्यताहरुले एउटा सभ्यताको विकास गर्यो जीवनलाई हेर्ने प्रकृतिलाई बुझ्ने समाजलाई नियमित बनाउने नैतिक नियम कानुन बन्यो । त्यो नियम कानुन तथा दर्शनले उनीहरुको जीवनमा एउटा आत्मविश्वास वा आध्यात्मिकताको विकास गर्यो र त्यो आध्यात्मिकताबाट नै किरात धर्मको जन्म भयो । किरात धर्म इसाई इस्लाम वा बौद्ध धर्मजस्ता कुनै एक व्यक्तिद्वारा घोषित धर्म नभएर पुर्खाहरुको हजारौं वर्षको भोगाइले जीवन र जगतप्रतिको बुझाइ वा हेराइको नाम हो र यो किरात धर्मको पवित्र धार्मिक ग्रन्थ मुन्धुम हो । मुन्धुम त्यही हजारौं बर्षको पुर्खाहरुको हजारौं वर्षको भोगाइ वा जीवन र जगतप्रतिको बुझाइले सिर्जना गरेका नियमहरुको संग्रह हो । यसरी हेर्दा किरात मुन्धुम एउटा सिङ्गै किरात सभ्यताको इतिहास हो ।

किरात मुन्धुममा किरात पुर्खाहरुको जीवन भोगाइका अनुभूतिहरु संकलित छन् । सृष्टिको नियम अनुसार मान्छेको उत्पत्ति भएपछि मानव जीवनलाई कसरी सुन्दर र व्यवस्थित बनाउने भनेर पुर्खाहरुको जीवन भोगाइका कथाका आधारमा मुन्धुममा नियमहरु लेखिएका छन् । किरात मुन्धुममा सिङ्गै सृष्टिको वर्णन पाइन्छ । मुन्धुममा पृथ्वीको उत्पत्ति त्यसपछि क्रमशः वनस्पति जीवजन्तु तथा मानिसको सृष्टिका कथाहरु र मानव सृष्टि भएपछि उनीहरुको जीवनलाई कसरी सामाजिक व्यवस्थित व्यवहारिक र व्यवसायिक बनाउने भन्ने कुराहरु मुन्धुमका कथाहरुमा वर्णित छन् । मुन्धुमका यी कथाहरु पुर्खाका जीवन भोगाइमा आधारित छन् । त्यस्ता कथा कहानीहरु कुनै काल्पनिक संसारमा आधारित नभई यही धरतीका खोला नाला डाँडा पाखा गुफा पोखरी तथा किरातीहरुले मान्दै आएका ऐतिहासिक स्थलहरुमा आधारित छन् ।

किरात मुन्धुम प्रकृति भूमिको सम्बन्ध
किरात मुन्धुम किरातीहरुको हेराइ हो किरातीहरुको बुझाइ हो किरातीहरुको दर्शन हो । किरात दर्शनले मान्छेलाई केन्द्रमा उभ्याएको हुन्छ । किरात मुन्धुमको व्याख्या अनुसार सृष्टिको नियम अनुरुप प्रकृतिको हरेक वनस्पति तथा जीव जन्तुहरुको जीवन चक्रलाई युगौंयुगसम्म निरन्तरता दिनको लागि पछिल्लो सर्वश्रेष्ठ प्राणीका रुपमा मान्छेको सृष्टि भएको मान्दछ । आजको वैज्ञानिक खोजले पनि अन्य वनस्पति तथा प्राणीहरुको सृष्टि पश्चातमात्र मानव सृष्टि भएको स्वीकार गरेको छ ।
किरात मुन्धुमको व्याख्यानुसार प्रकृतिमा सबै वनस्पति तथा जीव जन्तुहरुको जन्म-विकास भइसक्दा पनि प्रकृतिको नियम जीवनचक्र ीषभ ऋथअभि लाई नियमित बनाउने तथा प्रकृतिको महत्वलाई बुझेर प्रकृतिको संरक्षण गर्ने चेतनशील प्राणीको अभाव सिर्जना भएकोले सृष्टिको पछिल्लो तर सर्वश्रेष्ठ प्राणीका रुपमा मान्छेको सृष्टि भएको कुरा उल्लेख छ । मान्छेको सृष्टि नभइ वनस्पति तथा जीवजन्तुको मात्र सृष्टि तथा विकास भएको अवस्थामा प्रकृतिलाई बुझ्ने प्रकृतिको संरक्षण सम्बद्र्धन गर्ने कार्यहरु हुन नसकेकाले त्यहाँ चेतनशील प्राणीको अभाव भएको थियो र त्यो अभाव मान्छेको सृष्टिपश्चात पूरा भएको हो भनेर किरात मुन्धुमले व्याख्या गर्दछ । त्यसैले किरात दर्शनले मान्छेलाई प्रकृतिको सर्वश्रेष्ठ बस्तुका रुपमा मान्दछ ।

आजको २१औं शताब्दीको वैज्ञानिक युगमा आइपुग्दा पनि किरात दर्शनलाई अनुसरण गर्ने तथा किरात मुन्धुमलाई आफ्नो पवित्र ग्रन्थ मान्ने किरातीहरु आफू रहेबसेका ठाउँहरुमा रहेका प्रत्येक खोला नाला पहाड गुफा पोखरी हिमाल आदिलाई पुज्ने गर्दछन् । यसरी प्रकृतिलाई सर्व।ेष्ठ मान्नु वा प्रकृतिको पूजाआजा गर्नुका पछाडि के कारणहरु छन् भन्ने बारेमा छुट्टै बहस गर्न उपयुक्त हुनेछ । तर यहाँ किरातीहरु प्रकृतिपूजक भएर प्रस्तुत हुनुले किरातीहरु आफू रहेबसेका क्षेत्र वा त्यहाँको माटो खोलानाला झरना पहाड पोखरी गुफा तथा हिमाल आदिसँग एक प्रकारको अनोन्याश्रित सम्बन्ध स्थापित गर्न पुगेका छन् । जुन सम्बन्ध स्थापित गर्न उनीहरुलाई हजारौं वर्ष लागेको थियो । अझ भनौं त्यस ठाउँलाई आवाद गर्न त्यहाँको हावापानीसँग घुलमिल वा परिचित हुन प्रत्येक मौसम अनुसार व्यवसाय गर्न विभिन्न प्राकृतिक प्रकोप तथा संकटहरुबाट बच्न त्यस ठाउँहरुमा उनीहरुले कठोर संघर्ष गर्नु पर्यो । त्यो हजारौं वर्षको संघर्षले उनीहरुलाई त्यस भूमिको विशेषता त्यहाँको परिवेश खोलानाला झरना पोखरी डाँडाकाँडाको महत्व बुझ्न सफल भए । आज जुन क्षेत्रमा किरात दर्शनलाई अनुसरण गर्ने किरातीहरुको बसोबास रहेको छ त्यहाँका खोलानाला गुफा पोखरी डाँडाकाँडा तथा हिमालहरुसँगको हजारौं वर्षको सम्बन्धले ती ठाउँ खोलानाला र पोखरीहरुप्रति उनीहरुले विशेष आस्था वा विश्वास सिर्जना गरेका छन् ।

किरात भूमि
किरात भूमिका बारेमा चर्चागर्दा यहाँ किरातीहरुको कुनै स्वायत्त क्षेत्र त्भचचष्तयचथ को बारेमा वहस गर्न खोजिएको होइन । यहाँ चर्चा गर्न खोजिएको विषय भनेको नेपालको पूर्वी भू-भाग जहाँ आफूलाई किराती भनेर चिनाउन चाहने जातिहरुको बसोबास छ जुन क्षेत्रलाई हिजोसम्म माझ किरात र पल्लो किरातका नामले सम्बोधन गरिन्थ्यो । उक्त क्षेत्र किरातीहरुको क्षेत्रका रुपमा परिचित हुनका पछाडि के कारणहरु छन् अर्थात् सिङ्गो किरात सभ्यताको इतिहास बोकेको किरात धर्मको पवित्र ग्रन्थ मुन्धुमले यहाँको माटो यहाँको भूमि खोलानाला झरना डाँडा गुफा आदि ठाउँहरुसँग कस्तो सम्बन्ध स्थापित गरेको छ भनेर चर्चा गर्न खोजिएको हो ।

वास्तवमा किरातीहरु र किरात क्षेत्रका बारेमा चर्चा गर्नुपर्दा उनीहरुको इतिहासलाई थोरै भए पनि कोट्याएर हेर्नुपर्ने हुन्छ । फेरि किरात इतिहासका बारेमा चर्चागर्दा किरातीहरुको सिङ्गो सभ्यताको इतिहास बोकेको किरात मुन्धुमलाई हेरेनौं भने सायद त्यो इतिहास पनि अधुरै रहन सक्छ । किनकि किरातीहरुको मुन्धुम एक किरात सभ्यताको इतिहास हो । मुन्धुम पुर्खाहरुको अनुभव एवं भोगाइद्वारा निचोड निकालिएको दर्शन हो । पुर्खाहरुले किरात मुन्धुम तयार गर्ने शिलशीलामा अर्थात् हजारौं वर्षको जीवन भोगाइहरुमा यहाँका पहाड खोलानाला गुफा पोखरी हिमाल आदि ठाउँहरुसँग कसरी साक्षात्कार गर्दै आए प्रत्येक स्थानहरुले उनीहरुको जीवनमा कस्तो प्रभाव वा अनुभूतिहरु प्रदान गर्न सक्यो त्यही अनुसार उक्त स्थानहरुलाई उनीहरुले बुझ्दै जान थाले । ती स्थानहरुप्रतिको उनीहरुको बुझाइले उनीहरुमा विश्वास र साहसको सिर्जना गर्यो । आज पनि यहाँका किरातीहरु गर्वका साथ भन्ने गर्दछन कि 'हामी खाम्बोङ्बासा लुङ्बोङ्बासा वा धर्ती पुत्रहरु हौं । हामी यही धर्तीमा विकसित भएका हौं । यसरी यही धर्तीसँग खेल्दै-संघर्ष गर्दै हामीले जानेका बुझेका ज्ञानहरु नै हाम्रो दर्शन हो ।'

कतिपयले किरातीहरुको यो भनाइलाई उनीहरुको खोक्रो आत्मविश्वासको अभिव्यक्तिमात्र भनेर व्याख्या गरेका छन् । उनीहरुको यस भनाइलाई पुष्टी गर्ने कुनै आधार नभएको तर्कहरु प्रस्तुत गरेका छन् । तर किरात मुन्धुमलाई हेर्ने हो भने उनीहरुको किरातहरुको त्यसक्षेत्रको माटोसँग त्यहाँको भूमिसँगको सम्बन्धले स्थापित गरेको अभिव्यक्ति हो । वास्तवमा किरात मुन्धुमलाई हेर्ने हो भने त्यही भूमिमा उनीहरुको किरात बुझाइहरु विकसित भएका छन् । त्यही माटो भूमिसँगको सम्बन्धले किरात दृष्टिकोणहरु किरात दर्शनहरु निर्माण भएका छन् । यस क्षेत्रमा भूमिमा उनीहरुको बुझाइ अनुसार आस्थाका रुपमा विकसित भएका किरात मुन्धुमसँग सम्बन्धित अनेकौं ऐतिहासिक स्थलहरु छन् । जसका आधारमा हेर्ने हो भने यो भूमि किरात भूमि सिङ्गै किरात दर्शनको उत्पति भूमि पनि हो ।

किरात ऐतिहासिक स्थलहरु
प्रत्येक जाति समुदाय वा धर्मावलम्बीहरुका लागि संसारका कुनै न कुनै ठाउँहरु विशेष महत्वका रुपमा रहेका हुन्छन् । त्यस्ता स्थानहरुसँग उनीहरुको विशेष आस्था हुने गर्दछ । किरातीहरुका पनि यस्ता विशेष आस्थाका रुपमा रहेका किरात मुन्धुमसँग सम्बन्धित धेरै स्थानहरु रहेका छन् । त्यस्ता किरात मुन्धुमसँग सम्बन्धित भएर रहेका केही स्थानहरुको बारेमा चर्चा गरिएको छ ।

मेन्छ्यायेम्ः- मेन्छ्यायेम् एउटा पहाडको नाम हो । भौगोलिकरुपमा यो डाँडा मिल्के पर्वत । श्र्ृङखलाअन्तर्गत ताप्लेजुङ तेह्रथुम र संखुवासभाको सीमानाको रुपमा रहेको छ । किरात मुन्धुममा यो डाँडाको प्रशस्त मात्रामा उल्लेख भएको पाइन्छ । गुफा पोखरीलाई आफ्नो काखमा लिएर बसेको यो डाँडा पर्यटकीय दृष्टिकोणले अति सुन्दर ठाउँ मानिन्छ भने किरात मुन्धुमले यसलाई बैशालु अवस्थलको रुपमा व्याख्या गरेको छ । मुन्धुममा वर्णन भएनुसार उहिले-उहिले यो म।ेन्छ्याये।म् डाँडामा तरुनी-तन्नेरीहरु भेला भएर नाच्ने गाउने गर्दथे । तन्नेरीहरुले छेलो हान्ने खेलको होडबाजी गर्दथे भनेर उल्लेख गरेको छ ।

स्वच्छ वातावरण र चारैतिरका सुन्दर दृष्यहरु अवलोकन गर्न र ती भौगोलिक दृष्यहरुसँग रम्न सकिने खालको भौगोलिक वातावरणलॆ अत्यन्त सुन्दर यो ठाउँमा पुग्दा जो कोही पनि प्रफुल्लित आनन्दित नभइरहन सक्दैनन् । यसरी प्राकृतिक दृष्यहरु अवलोकन गरेर पनि रम्न-रमाउन सकिने सुन्दर ठाउँ भएको हुनाले किरात पुर्खाहरुले यो ठाउँलाई तरुनी तन्नेरीहरु भेला भएर नाच्ने-गाउने उपयुक्त ठाउँको रुपमा चुनेको हुनुपर्दछ ।

फक्ताङ्लुङ् :- फक्ताङलुङ कुम्भकर्ण लाई किरातीहरुको तीर्थस्थलका रुपमा मानिन्छ । संसारको तेस्रो अग्लो मानिने काचन्जंघा हिमश्र्ंखलामा पर्ने यो हिमाललाई किरातीहरुले देवताहरु बस्ने स्थानका रुपमा मान्ने गर्दछन् । संसारका सबै हिमालहरु आरोहण भइसक्दा पनि माङको निवास भएको कारणले फक्ताङलुङको आरोहण गर्न नसकिने किरातीहरुको विश्वास रहेको छ ।

सेन्चेइ फक्ताङलुङ पारुङफुक्कु-मारुङ्फुक्कु पारुङ्तेम्बे-मारुङतेम्बे इत्यादि नामले मुन्धुममा वर्णित हुने यी सबै स्थानहरु यस हिमालमा पर्दछन् । फक्ताङलुङ हिमालको फेदीमा पारुङफुक्कु मारुङफुक्कु तथा पारुङतेम्बे-मारुङतेम्बेसम्म पुगेर किरातीहरुले पुजाआजा गर्ने गर्दछन् । फक्ताङलुङ पर्यटकीय दृष्टिकोणले अति सुन्दर भएपनि हिउँदको याममा पारुङफुक्कु मारुङफुक्कु तथा पारुङतेम्बे मारुङतेम्बे पनि पुरै हिउँले ढाकिने हुनाले विशेष गरी असार श्रावणमा मात्र त्यहाँ पूजा गर्न जाने गर्दछन् ।
तागेरानिङ्वाभू याङदाङः-तागेरा निङवाभूयाङदाङ गुफा ताप्लेजुङ जिल्लाको लेलेप गा.वि.स.मा अवस्थित छ । किरातीहरुले निराकार निराजन अदृष्य सर्वशक्तिमान देवताका रुपमा तागेरा निङवाभूमाङलाई मान्ने गर्दछन् । किरात मुन्धुमका अनुसार तिनै सर्वशक्तिमान तागेरा निङवाभूमाङ विभिन्न क्षेत्रको यात्राका क्रममा यस तागेरा निङवाभूयाङदाङमा बस्ने गरेको उल्लेख छ ।

कुम्मायक कुस्सायकः- कुम्मायक कुस्सायक किरातीहरुको ऐतिहासिक स्थल हो । किरातीहरुले कुल देवताका रुपमा युमामाङलाई मान्ने गर्दछन् । प्रत्येक किरातीहरुले युमा माङको पूजा आरधना गर्दछन् । किरातीहरुले जे कर्म गर्दा पनि युमा माङको आरधना गर्ने चलन छ । किरातीहरुले युमा माङलाई निराकार निराजन अदृष्य सर्वशक्तिमान देवताका रुपमा पुज्ने चलन रहेको छ । यासक स्थित यस कुम्मायक कुस्सायकमा तिनै निराकार निराजन अदृष्य सर्वशक्तिमान देवता युमामाङ मान्छेमा प्रकट भएर बोलेको हुनाले यस स्थानलाई किरातीहरुले पवित्र रुपमा मान्ने गर्दछन् । यो कुम्मायक कुस्सायकमा आज प्रत्येक वर्ष याक्वा सेवा र चासोक सेवामा पुजा आरधना गर्ने गर्दछन् । त्यसै गरी प्रत्येक तीन वर्षमा टाढा टाढाबाट किरातीहरु पुजा आरधना गर्न यस कुम्मायक कुस्सायकमा आउने गर्दछन् ।

निष्कर्ष
विगतमा लामो समयको विषम परिस्थितिलाई पार गरेर आज किरात समाज आफ्नो अस्तित्वका लागि सामाजिक धार्मिक राजनैतिक सांस्कृतिक तथा ऐतिहासिक आदि विभिन्न कोणबाट अगाडि बढिरहेको छ । यो अत्यन्त खुशीको कुरा हो । यसरी किरात समाजलाई अस्तित्वका लागि अगाडि बढ्नलाई उनीहरुको विभिन्न ऐतिहासिक आधारहरुको महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका हुने गर्दछ ।

यस लेखमा किरातीहरुको ऐतिहासिक भूमिलाई किरात मुन्धुमसँग संयोजन तथा तुलना गरेर अध्ययन गर्न खोजिएको हो । किरातहरु ऐतिहासिकरुपमा जहाँबाट जसरी आएका इतिहासले ब्याख्या गरेता पनि उनीहरुको सभ्यताको इतिहास भनेको किरात मुन्धुम हो । उनीहरुलाई किराती बनाएको त्यो किरात दर्शनले हो । किराती भनेर चिनाएको नै किरात सभ्यताले हो । उनीहरुको त्यो दर्शन त्यो सभ्यताको इतिहास भनेको नै किरात मुन्धुम हो । आजसम्म पनि किरातीहरुले आफूलाई किराती भनेर चिनाएका छन् भने किरात मुन्धुमले नै हो ।

किरात मुन्धुमलाई हेर्ने हो भने उनीहरुले यही भूमिमा किरात दर्शनको विकास गरेको स्पष्ट हुन्छ । किरात पुर्खाहरुले यही भूमिमा हजारौं वर्षको जीवन भोगाइले विकास गरेको सोचाइका आधारमा किरात दर्शनको विकास भएको हो । किरात मुन्धुममा उल्लेखित भूमिहरुका आधारमा किरात ऐतिहासिक स्थलहरुको अध्ययन गर्ने हो भने यो कुरा स्पष्ट हुन्छ । त्यो किरात दर्शनको समष्टीरुप नै किरात मुन्धुम हो ।

यसरी किरात मुन्धुम र किरात ऐतिहासिक स्थलहरुबीचको सम्बन्धको विश्लेषणका आधारमा यो किरात दर्शनको उत्पत्ति भूमि हो भन्न सकिन्छ । तर यस तथ्यलाई अझ विस्तृत र वैज्ञाननिक रुपमा पनि अध्ययन अन्वेषण गरेर हेर्न भने आवश्यक हुन्छ । यो अभिभारा अब तमाम किरातीहरुको काँधमा आएको छ ।

सन्दर्भ सामग्री
१. इमानसिङ् चेम्जोङ- किरात साहित्यको इतिहास
२. इमानसिङ् चेम्जोङ- किरात मुन्धुम
३. बैरागी काइला - तङसिङ तक्मा मुन्धुम
४. कुमार लिङदेन-फूटकर लेख
५. चन्द्रकुमार सेर्मा - फक्ताङलुङ दर्शन


 

The ten rulers, their kingdoms and their forts:

1. Samlupi Samba Hang, King of Tambar and his capital Tambar Yiok.
2. Sisiyen Shering Hang, King of Mewa and Maiwa kingdoms and his capital Meringden Yiok.
3. Thoktokso Angbo Hang, King of Athraya and his capital Pomajong.
4. Thindolung Khokya Hang, King of Yangwarok and his capital Hastapojong Yiok
5. Yengaso Papo Hang, King of Panthar and his capital at Yashok and Phedim.
6. Shengsengum Phedap Hang, King of Phedap and his capital at Poklabung.
7. Mung Tai Chi Emay Hang, King of Ilam and his capital at Phakphok.
8. Soiyak Lado Hang, King of Bodhey (Choubise) and his capital at Shanguri Yiok.
9. Tappeso Perung Hang, King of Thala and his capital at Thala Yiok.
10. Taklung Khewa Hang, King of Chethar and his capital at Chamling Chimling Yiok.

Rise of King Mawrong

After a brief period, King Mawrong Hang came to prominence and took over Terai lands of Chethar, Bodhey, Panthar and Ilam (present day Jhapa, Morang Sunsari and Dhankuta). He named his Kingdom Morang after his name and rose to power. He subdued all the Ten Limbu Kings of Limbuwan and became their overlord. He died with out any male heir and King Uba Hang took over as supreme ruler of Limbuwan in 849 AD- 865 AD. He made many religious and social reforms in Limbuwan. Uba Hang's worthy son Mabo Hang succeeded him in 865 AD and ruled till 880 AD. Uba hang kept on with the reforms his father had started. Uba Hang was succeeded by his son Muda Hang. Muda Hang was a weak ruler so the local chiefs started ruling their areas independently. Muda Hang was succeeded by his son Wedo Hang, by this time Limbuwan was in chaos and every principality was ruling independently and fighting with each other. Wedo hang was murdered and his son Chemjonghang succeeded.

Rise of King Sirijonga

During this chaos and the waning phase of King Chemjong hang, King Sirijonga of Yangwarok kingdom rose to power. He subdued all the independent rulers and took over as the new supreme ruler of Limbuwan. He built two big forts in Phedap (present day Terhathum district) and Chainpur (present day Sankhuwasabha district). The remains of the structure still stand today. One of legacy was that he brought all the Limbus under the same writing system in Kirat script. He also brought feudal reform in Limbuwan and divided Limbuwan into new boundaries and districts.

Eventually after the establishment of Namgyal dynasty in Sikkim and under the Lho-Mehn-Tsong Tsum, a treaty between the Bhutia, Lepcha and Limbu people of the Sikkim area, Limbuwan lost the area between Kunchenjunga range (present day eastern border of Nepal) and Teesta River to the Bhutia Kings of Sikkim. Since then Limbuwan comprises all the area between Arun River and Koshi River in the west to Kunchenjunga Mountains and Mechi River in the east.

In the beginning of 15th century, the descendants of King Sirijonga became weak and Limbuwan again fell into chaos and anarchy. At the time Lowland Limbuwan Kingdom of Morang was ruled by King Sangla Ing. Sangla Ing declared independence and became the first independent ruler of Morang in a century. His son Pungla Ing adopted Hinduism and changed his name into Aamar Raya Ing. He was succeeded by his descendents, who also bore Hindu names. Kirti Narayan Raya Ing, Aap Narayan Raya Ing, Jarai Narayan Raya Ing, Ding Narayan Raya Ing, and Bijay Narayan Raya Ing.

King Bijay Narayan Raya Sanlga Ing built a new town in the middle of Varatappa and Shangori fort and named it Bijaypur after him. He had no issue and died without an heir.

Bijaypur town was founded in 1584 AD and is currently located next to Dharan, Sunsari District. Bijaypur town remained the capital of Morang Kingdom and Limbuwan region until the Gorkha Limbuwan War in 1774 AD.

Morang Kingdom was the most powerful and influential of all the Kingdoms in Limbuwan region and was able to establish its hegemony among all the other Limbu rulers. But in 1609 AD Kirant King Lo hang Sen of Sen dynasty captured Morang and ruled it for seven generations.

King of Phedap Murray Hang was made the chief minister of Morong. He stayed in Bijaypur and the King of Morong made his post hereditary. Murray Hang was given a Hindu name and he became Bidya Chandra Raya . His descendents remained Chief Ministers of Morong until Buddhi Karna Raya . Buddhi Karna Raya succeeded the last Sen King of Morang Kama Datta sen and sat in the throne of Bijaypur Palace in 1769 AD.

Annexation into Nepal

Meanwhile, the Gorkha King Prithivi Narayan Shah was in is campaign to conquest all the hilly kingdoms into his Empire. He attacked Limbuwan in two fronts. After the Limbuwan Gorkha War 1771-1774 AD, the Limbu ministers of Morong, and Limbu rulers of the ten principalities came to an agreement with the King of Gorkha. With the Limbuwan Gorkha treaty of 1774, Limbuwan was annexed to Nepal.

Limbuwan was attacked several times by Sikkim after 1774 AD. Battle of Morong during the British Gurkha war took place in Morong. Limbuwan was divided into present day administrative districts in Panchayat era by King Mahendra. Taplejung, Ilam, Panthar and Morang was named after their original names, whereas names of the other districts in Limbuwan were Hinduised.

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